Get access to latest Afghanistan printing and publishing tenders and bids. Find business opportunities and government contracts for Afghanistan printing publishing tenders, government printing publishing tenders Afghanistan, Afghanistan magazine printing and publishing tenders, Afghanistan online printing publishing tenders, signage tenders, Afghanistan book printing, stationery tenders, news printing tenders. Find Afghanistan printing and publishing bid invitations, tenders, bids, procurement, RFPs, RFQs, ICBs. Search for Afghanistan printing and publishing tenders online. The economy of Afghanistan has steadily improved in the last decade due to the return of a large number of wealthy expats, the modernization of the nation's agriculture sector, and the establishment of more trade routes with neighboring and regional countries. The billions of dollars in international assistance that came from expats and outside investors saw this increase when there was more political reliability after NATO became involved in Afghanistan's reconstruction. The nation's GDP (PPP) stands these days at about $70 billion with an exchange rate of $20 billion (2017), and the GDP per capita (PPP) is about $2,000. It imports over $6 billion worth of goods but exports about $1 billion worth of legal products, mainly fruits and nuts. Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images using a master form or template. Offset printing is a widely used modern printing process. This technology is best described as when a positive (right-reading) image on a printing plate is inked and transferred from the plate to a rubber blanket. The blanket image becomes a mirror image of the plate image. An offset transfer moves the image to a printing substrate, making the image right-reading again. Offset printing utilizes a lithographic process which is based on the repulsion of oil and water. Currently, most books and newspapers are printed using offset lithography. Professional digital printing primarily uses an electrical charge to transfer toner or liquid ink to the substrate onto which it is printed. Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as books, newspapers, and magazines. With the advent of digital information systems, the scope has expanded to include electronic publishing such as ebooks, academic journals, micropublishing, websites, blogs, video game publishing, and the like.